Many modern communications systems combine in-phase (I) and quadrature phase (Q) components in a transmitted signal. Digital communication systems frequently require quadrature modulation of complex baseband signals. IQ modulation is a very general form of modulating an RF carrier to convey program information. After IQ modulation both the amplitude and phase of the modulated carrier can convey recoverable information. Quadrature modulation techniques enable two independent signals to be combined at a transmitter, transmitted on the same transmission band, and separated at a receiver. Quadrature modulation upconverts the information bearing in-phase and Q-signals to an intermediate frequency (IF) or directly to the carrier frequency (direct conversion), depending on the structure of the transmitter radio frequency (RF) chain. The quadrature modulator is supplied with an in-phase input signal and a quadrature input signal from a digital transmuting part. A quadrature modulator operates on a quadrature modulation basis. It enables two independent signals to be combined in the transmitter and be transmitted on the same transmission band and the signals to be separated again at the receiver. Quadrature modulation usually involves multiplication with a complex exponential and subsequently extracting the real part of the complex product for transmission into the medium. After modulation, the resulting signals are summed and transmitted. Because of the phase difference, the I and Q signals can be separated from each other when the summed signal is demodulated at the receiver.
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