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Power transformer

Power transformers are widely utilized to step down the high transmission voltage in power lines to a level satisfactory for industrial and household usage. Transformers are designated by high and low side operating voltages, and sized as to capacity of the volts and amperes being carried. The electrical power transformer has been the backbone of the electric utility distribution system for many years. The power transformer has a high efficiency and a good history of reliability. The transformers generally have exposed bushing terminals with lead wires attached to the terminals. In the distribution of electrical energy it is customary to transform the voltage up to a higher level at the generating source, distribute the energy via transmission lines at the high level and then transform the voltage back to a lower level for use by the load. Power transformers are used to convert an alternating current power supply of the type available in homes, offices, hotels, and the like via an ordinary wall outlet to a direct current power supply compatible with electronic devices, such as cell phones, telephones, answering machines, calculators, computers, radios, and the like. These power transformers are used to reduce the dependence upon batteries or to provide charging energy for rechargeable batteries from available alternating current power supplies. Power transformers generally consist of insulated copper wire wound on an iron core and consist of two windings usually referred to as a primary winding and a secondary winding. In toroidal power transformers, a primary winding is first wound on a toroid shaped core, covering nearly the entire circumference of the core. One or more secondary windings are then wound on top of the primary windings, with a high-voltage insulating layer separating the primary and secondary windings for forming a safety insulation layer capable of withstanding high-voltage insulation testing and high operating potential differences between the primary and secondary windings. Power transformers typically include insulation positioned between or around the various conductive paths therein. The insulation is often formed from a paper or cellulose material. Mineral oil is also commonly used as an insulator in power transformers. To provide the regulated power supply, the transformer includes a power converting circuit within the housing having a male connector positioned thereon. The male connector is for a connection to a female connector of a main power supply wall outlet.


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