Low pass filter
Low-pass filters are widely used as building blocks in circuit designs. They are usually used to filter out unwanted spurious responses and harmonics of higher frequencies. Performance of a low-pass filter is characterized by insertion loss in the passband and rejection in the stopband. Low pass filters are often implemented using digital signal processing (DSP) circuits as the circuits provide a cost-effective, compact, and flexible way of eliminating the undesired frequency components. In a typical configuration using a DSP circuit, an analog to digital converter (ADC) may sample an analog signal to generate a high frequency data stream. Low pass filters are often used for eliminating high frequency spectral components from different types of signals. Low pass filters may be used in modems to eliminate (or substantially attenuate) spectral components having a frequency greater than 3.4 kHz in an analog signal. Such analog signals are generally generated at another modem to encode digital data. The filters reduce or attenuate noise induced frequencies which lie outside a preferred filter pass band, while passing electrical signals having frequencies within the specified pass band. Therefore, the passive low pass filter behaves as a frequency sensitive voltage divider. Low pass filters are also used to pass DC and AC signals at frequencies below a cut off frequency and to attenuate AC signals at a frequency above the cut off frequency. An optical low pass filter is incorporated in front of a CCD in a camera device to cancel color Moire fringes and the like. Optical low pass filters generally block infrared light and pass only light of short wavelengths to prevent negative effects on imaged color in the optical system. The shield film which blocks the infrared light is normally formed from laminations of optical thin films of materials of low and high refractivity. A typical low pass filter has an inductor, a capacitor and a dielectric encapsulant.
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