An electric motor is a device that converts electric energy into mechanical energy. A general motor includes a stator on which windings are mounted, and a rotor on which a permanent magnet, an aluminum conductor, or a core is formed. Motors are mainly divided into alternating current (AC) motors and direct current (DC) motors. The electric motors may also be classified, on the basis of how the mover is operated, into a rotary motor whose mover is rotated, a linear motor whose mover is linearly reciprocated, and a vibratory motor whose mover is vibrated. DC motors are well known and used in a wide variety of functions and industries. In general, such motors utilize a changing magnetic field that causes an inner shaft or rotor to rotate relative to an outer body or stator, which is usually fixed. Alternating current (AC) motors provide much of the motive force for industry. AC motors are widely used in industry to drive rotating machinery. The vast majority of these applications require the motor to run at a constant angular velocity corresponding to the frequency of the input AC power. A rectifier motor apparatus includes a brush, a rectifier and a coil. Rectifier motor apparatuses, which have a simple structure and usable with DC or AC currents, are widely used in multi-purpose compact devices, electric home appliances and toys. A brushless motor includes a motor rectifying mechanism using a sensor or dedicated IC, instead of a mechanical sliding member such as a brush, a rectifier and the like. Brushless DC motors are known to be both highly efficient and economical. Motors of this type are employed in a number of applications ranging from office equipment to industrial robotics. Brushless type motors include stepper motors generate electrical power by switching magnetic excitation states of magnetic poles therein. A step motor system will generally contain three discrete major units: a motor, a driver, and a controller. Stepper motors are used in a wide variety of applications due to their low cost, ruggedness, simplicity of construction, and wide acceptance, among other factors. Permanent magnet stepper motors are currently used in a wide variety of apparatus including cameras, printers and scanners. Their ability to effect discrete and precise movement makes them the preferred choice for driving mechanical elements in this type of equipment. Today, two of the most widely used motors for precise repeatable tasks are the stepper motor and the servo motor. A typical brushless servo motor includes a permanent magnet rotor and three-phase stator windings. The windings of the servo motor are selectively excited in accordance with the angular position of the motor rotor by opening and closing switching transistors to provide switching in a predetermined sequence. A linear motor includes an armature and a stator which are disposed face to face with a specific magnetic gap formed in between. There are various configurations of linear motors, including flat motors, U-channel motors and tubular shaped motors. Different types of linear motors are also available, including brush, AC brushless, stepper, and induction motors. Induction motors are widely used in various industrial fields because of their durability and cheapness, and the unnecessity of speed control. Induction motors have a stator having a stator winding, and a rotor which has a winding in which the rotor current becomes induced through the stator winding. Synchronous motors are well known. A permanent magnet type synchronous motor includes a rotatably supported rotor and a stator arranged around the rotor. The permanent magnet synchronous motors have become increasingly popular in high-performance variable-frequency drives due to their high efficiency, high torque-to-inertia ratio, rapid dynamic response, and relatively simple modeling and control.
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