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Synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM)

Synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) is a generic name for various kinds of dynamic random access memories (DRAM) that are synchronized with the clock speed of a microprocessor. Dynamic random access memory (DRAM) is utilized in various electronic systems for storing large amounts of digitally encoded information. The speed of DRAMs have become more critical since the electronic systems that utilize these devices are operating at ever increasing speeds. As computer processor speeds increase, faster random access memory is needed to fully realize the potential of faster processor chips. One solution for faster random access memory is synchronous DRAM (SDRAM). SDRAM is characterized by that the data access rate is synchronized with CPU's clock signal, allowing the CPU to retrieve data from SDRAM without latency so that the access speed is increased. An SDRAM device operates in two modes: interleaved mode or sequential mode. Typically, SDRAMs are fabricated as separate integrated circuits from other system components. The SDRAMs, microprocessor, and other components of the system are interconnected via a system bus. An SDRAM controller facilitates communication between the microprocessor and the SDRAM, and controls the functioning of the synchronous dynamic random access memory. To control the operation of an SDRAM, the controller may use standard signals, such as address, row address select (RAS), column address select (CAS), write enable (WE), and data input/output mask (DQM) assertions. The SDRAM has internal logic used to advance the data address. In addition to the timing signals, certain control registers of the internal logic of the SDRAM must be loaded with timing control parameters before the sequential access mode may be used.

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