computer hardware, consumer electronics, electronic components  


Electrical erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) is a type of non-volatile memory with many advantages including a rapid response, a large storage capacity and a small size. Electrically erasable and programmable read only memory (EEPROM) serves for multiple data write/read/rapid erase operations, and the data stored therein stays after supplying power is off. The electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) has proven useful because it combines the convenience of non-volatile data storage with the capability to erase the stored data electrically, then program new data. Electrically erasable and programmable read only memory (EEPROM) is currently one the most widely used memory devices applied in personal computers and electronic equipment. An EEPROM memory device typically includes EEPROM memory cells arranged in an array and peripheral circuits around the array for accessing the memory cells for program or erase operations. EEPROM cells have floating gates similar to erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM) cells. The basic EEPROM memory cell has a field-effect transistor with a control gate and a floating gate. The cell is erased and programmed by producing a potential difference between the control gate and the source or drain large enough to cause Fowler-Nordheim tunneling of electrons into or out of the floating gate. EEPROM cells and EPROM cells are programmed or erased by injecting electrons into the floating gates or ejecting the electrons out of the floating gates. A memory cell in an early developed conventional EEPROM comprises a transistor with a floating gate to achieve the operations of writing, erasing, and storing data while electrical shut down. The information is stored in the EEPROM cell as an electrical charge. The electrical charge modifies the electrical characteristics of the EEPROM cell so that the information can be later read back using the modified electrical characteristics. Non-volatile electrically erasable and programmable memory structures, such as a flash memory, utilize a floating gate whose charging is controlled by appropriate biasing of the source, drain and controlling gate. A flash memory is unique in providing fast compact storage which is both nonvolatile and rewritable.

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