Underwater, submarine cable
The cables for communication and electrical power transmission in recent years are more and more installed for longer distances and increasing number of the cables have been laid out upon sea or river beds. The optical fiber has the advantages of low loss, wide bandwidth and light weight and hence is regarded as a promising transmission medium which will succeed a coaxial submarine cable heretofore employed. An optical fiber has a diameter on the order of 125 microns, for example, and is covered with a coating material which increases the outer diameter of the coated fiber to about 250 microns, for example. Coated optical fibers typically are assembled into units or ribbons disposed within a tubular member and enclosed in a sheath system which may take any of several forms. The core portion is enclosed by an outer sheath portion which often is referred to as an oversheath and which includes a plurality of layers of metallic strength members and twine bedding layers and a tar-impregnated twine outer protective wrap. An underwater cable comprises the line cables, repeaters in housings equipped with access cables and joint boxes in which two line cables are connected together or a line cable is connected to a repeater access cable. The joint boxes and repeater housings are covered with a polyethylene jacket sealing and electrically insulating the cable from the surrounding seawater and continuous with the jacket of the line and access cables. Underwater burial machines are used to bury communications cables in the sea bottom in an effort to protect the cables from damage. These machines plow a groove in the seabed beneath a body of water, and they simultaneously lay a cable into the groove which they have plowed. Submarine cable protecting devices are provided to protect the submarine cables installed at locations which are susceptible to seashore waves or sea currents. The submarine cable protecting devices are in a generally cylindrical shape and enclose the submarine cables therein. In many typical submarine optical fiber cables, a supporting metallic structure, called "armor," is employed to protect the fragile optical fibers from excessive tensile and radial forces.
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