Audio reproduction systems take signals representing audio information and convert them to sound waves. Audio reproduction systems are used in a variety of applications including radio receivers, stereo equipment, speakerphone systems, and a number of other environments. A typical sound amplification system minimally requires a microphone, an amplifier and a loudspeaker for amplification and output of sounds. In operation, the microphone converts audio signals into electrical signals, which are amplified by the amplifier for transmission to the loudspeaker. The speaker then converts the amplified signals into sounds for emission. An audio speaker is a device that receives a signal and produces sound. The signal received by a speaker typically is an electric signal produced by an audio amplifier. The speaker receives the amplifier signal and produces vibrations which produce sound. Loudspeakers, or speakers, are commonly used in a variety of applications, such as in home theater stereo systems, car audio systems, indoor and outdoor concert halls, and the like. Speaker system is indispensable for conversion of electronic signal from electronic amplifier to radiative sound with high fidelity. As speakers became more sophisticated, stereophonic features were added in combination with use of multiple speaker systems. Modern surround-sound systems capitalize on diverse speakers to generate both stereophonic output, as well as synchronized shifting of isolated sounds to individual speakers disposed around the listener. Audio power amplifiers are arranged to amplify a low level audio signal and to amplify it sufficiently to drive a loudspeaker. A preamplifier is used in an electronic system to increase the amplitude of a weak signal created within the electronic system. An audio equalizer is a circuit with a transfer function designed to compensate for undesired amplitude, phase, and frequency characteristics (noise) in the sound signal. An equalizer is a desired function to combine with an amplifier because the amplifier is often the source of the undesired noise. The arrival of digital recording and playback technology has revolutionized this industry. Audio players and specifically, portable audio players, have evolved dramatically. Analog recording technology allowed input audio waves to be converted to analog audio waves, thus making cassette tapes utilizing magnetic tape the dominant design in the portable audio player industry. In the late 1980's, compact discs and CD players became widely utilized to record and play audio information. Compact discs include digital audio information and are superior to analog audio tapes in terms of durability and quality. The most recent development in portable audio players is the digital player. Digital music players are proliferating as standalone consumer electronic devices, such as MP3 players, as bundled components within portable devices such as personal data assistants (PDAs) and cell phones, and as home network appliances. MP3 (MPEG Audio Layer-3) format is a compression system for digital music that helps reduce the size of a digitized song without degrading the sound quality. MP3 files can be downloaded from the Internet using a computer and special software. A personal computer programmed with the appropriate software can covert digital music from a CD (compact disk) into MP3 format. A digital audio player, such as an MP3 player, includes an audio chip and a storage device capable of recording, storing, and playing digital audio information. Typically, an audio chip is designed to compress and decompress audio digital data in order to save memory space.
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