|Saturday, 11 November 2006|
Mouse is the terminology used in computer science to refer to a pointing device which is slid along a flat surface to create x and y output signals as a result of said movement, the signals causing a cursor on the connected computer screen to move and allows the user to point to objects on the screen. A computer mouse is a handheld device that a user slides over a suitable surface causing the cursor on a computer screen to move in a direction determined by the motion of the device. The mouse is a hand-held device operated on a flat surface which, in cooperation with the necessary computer hardware and software, allows the user to control movement of a cursor or pointer on the display. Computer mice are often referred to as cursor positioning devices or cursor control devices, although mice are utilized to perform many other functions, such as to launch applications, re-size and move windows, drag, open and drop documents, select icons, text, menu items in a pull-down menu, and others. The mouse permits a computer user to position and move a cursor on a computer screen without having to use a keyboard. The mouse and mouse button allow the user to move a cursor or other pointing device to a specific area of the computer screen and depress the one or more buttons to activate specific computer program functions. Typically, cursor location is controlled by movement of the mouse across a surface. The mouse includes a tracking device for measuring the movement of the mouse across the surface. The cursor is controlled by moving a mouse containing a movement sensor across a surface. This movement is relayed to the computer where it is translated into a corresponding movement of the cursor on the display. Depressing or clicking a mouse button, signals the computer to initiate a function. The function is determined by the operating system and application program in use with the computer. The movement of the mouse in an X-Y plane typically actuates a mechanical, optical or electrical device within the mouse which produces X and Y position signals which are conveyed to the computer. The computer typically uses the mouse X and Y position signals to manipulate the display of the computer screen, allowing a user to control a program.
Computer mice can be found in a variety of physical embodiments. Typically a mouse comprises a body that serves as a grip for the user's hand and as a structure for mounting a movement sensing system and two or more mouse buttons for selecting computer functions. A computer mouse is ergonomically designed so that a user's hand fits snugly around the device. The computer mouse may be considered as having a bottom surface which is in contact with a work surface such as a mouse pad when in use, and an upper surface which includes one or more pressure-sensitive switches for controlling computer operations when operated. Computer mice are available with electro-mechanical, opto-mechanical, or optical movement sensing systems. The electro- and opto-mechanical systems typically incorporate a ball arranged for rotation in the body and protruding from the bottom of the mouse into contact with the surface on which the mouse is resting. Movement of the mouse causes the ball to rotate. Electrical or optical transducers in the body convert the motion of the ball into electrical signals proportionate to the extent of movement of the mouse in x and y directions. The motion of the mouse can also be sensed with an optical system. The computer mouse typically is a hand-held device operating on the mouse pad which, in cooperation with the computer hardware and software, permits a computer operator to control the path and movement of a cursor or pointer located on the computer display monitor. The mouse having activation buttons so that the appropriate computer programs can be accessed and activated for operations of the computer. A mouse includes at least two switches, which are typically in the form of buttons. These buttons permit the user to signify to the computer to perform various functions. Typically, the left mouse button is the primary button used to select windows, pull down menus, highlight text, etc. These switching functions are typically used to activate a function or command identified by the cursor location, or they can be set to control certain software features. Other mouse buttons may also be included and used to provide control for other software features such as scrolling or paging. In general, there are at least two basic types of mice: electromechanical and optical. The electromechanical mouse has a rubber or metal ball (trackball) protruding from its underside that can roll in all directions. Typically mechanical sensors within the mouse detect the speed and direction the ball is rolling and moves the screen pointer accordingly. To provide good traction, an electromechanical mouse is generally used with a flat soft-cushioned mouse pad. An optical mouse generates cursor signals corresponding to its movement detected by optical reflection.
Mechanical mice typically have an enclosure houses a rubber, plastic, or metal ball. The enclosure allows the ball to move freely in all directions, and mechanical motion sensors, located in the mouseball enclosure, are used to develop a signal that corresponds to the movement of the ball, which is then sent to the computer to move the cursor on the computer display screen. The movement of the ball generates two-dimensional data input for corresponding cursor control, the results of which are visible on a display device of the computer. The mouse has a mouse ball that is located in an interior ball cavity. The mouse ball is held loosely inside of the interior ball cavity by a removable cover that has an opening with a smaller diameter than the mouse and extends outwardly through the cover opening when the mouse is positioned ball side down. The mouse ball typically has a diameter of about 13/16 inch. A retainer plate formed with a circular hole is fitted removably in the opening in the bottom wall of the mouse body. The diameter of the circular hole in the retainer plate is somewhat smaller than the diameter of the mouse ball, so the mouse ball is held captive in the cavity in the mouse body but protrudes through the hole in the retainer plate. In use, movement of the mouse across a mouse pad or other flat surface causes the mouse ball to roll inside of the interior ball cavity, thereby causing mouse contact rollers inside of the mouse to roll. As the user slides the mouse over the mouse pad, the mouse ball rolls against the movement encoding mechanism, which detects the rolling movement of the mouse ball and generates an electrical pulse signal in response thereto. The movement of the mouse contact rollers is then translated into instructions that ultimately cause a cursor on a connected computer screen to move in response to movement of the mouse ball across the mouse pad. A typical mouse pad is made of a resilient material, such as rubber. The upper surface of the mouse pad, on which the mouse slides, is smooth except for a layer of fabric which is glued to the upper surface of the mouse pad in order to provide frictional engagement with the mouse ball.
In addition to mechanical types of pointing devices like a conventional mouse, optical pointing devices have also been developed. The optical mouse has several advantages such as its precise detection of a movement of user's hand and its smooth movement, compared with a conventional ball mouse, thus its use increasing more and more. An optical mouse utilizes optical sensors to detect movement of the mouse relative to a surface. The optical mouse has no mechanical moving parts, and may be used on almost any flat surface. They respond more quickly and precisely than electromechanical mice, and are growing in popularity. An optical mouse overcomes at least the dust problem by generating the movement signal of the mouse by means of detection of reflection light. Generally, an optical mouse is operated by reflecting light emitted from the main body of the optical mouse from a touching object, thus, enabling the movement of the mouse on the pad to be detected and enabling a cursor on a computer monitor to be moved. An optical mouse optically recognizes its movement on the touching object, converts the recognized value to an electric signal, transmits the electric signal to the computer, and thereby the position of the cursor on the monitor can be recognized. In an optical mouse, a light emitted from a light source 8 is reflected by an operating surface, and the reflected light passes through a lens to be inputted to an image sensor made of semiconductor process. The optical mouse measures a quantity of the light projected to the image sensor and stores a pattern made by comparing a difference between pixels of the image sensor. Then, a movement of the mouse is calculated by comparing a current pattern with a pattern made in a prior sample period. An optical mouse generally features a scrolling and zooming wheel, and two customizable buttons on opposing sides of the scroll wheel. The buttons facilitate internet navigation and other routine tasks. A regular optical mouse comprises two optical transmitter receiver modules arranged at right angles. Each optical transmitter receiver module comprises a photo emitter and a photo receiver. The optical mouse determines its own position relative to the surface by comparing the differences between consecutive images.
Conventionally, a computer mouse is connected to a computer system by a cable for transmitting signal/power therebetween. The physical connection of the mouse to the host computer by the cable undesirably restricts free movement of the mouse and may effect undesirable movement. Further constant bending or twisting of the cable may effect deterioration thereof so as to result in disconnection or improper contact of connectors at opposite ends of the cable. Wireless computer mice have been developed to eliminate the need for a cord, and to make it easier for a user to move the mouse around without having to drag a cord. A cableless mouse that communicates with a computer system by means of electromagnetic signals for data transmission overcomes the problem. The wireless computer mouse is generally energized by battery and communicates through infrared transmission or radio frequency transmission to realize wireless operation. To replace the exhausted battery, the battery is often stored in a battery chamber with battery cover. The wireless mice currently available are either infrared based or RF based transmission systems. Infrared signal transmission mouse devices are subject to operational limitations as well in that they must be aligned in the direction of a signal receiver. Such optical mouse transmits an optical signal using a signal generator located at an end of a mouse body to a signal receiver connected to the computer. The infrared systems are the simplest and least expensive, however, they require a line of sight to the receiver. This can result in inconsistent transmission as the mouse is moved or if other objects block the transmission path. RF systems do not suffer from this problem but are more expensive than infrared systems. Nonetheless, RF wireless mice are increasingly being used for wireless mouse controllers over infrared systems due to their performance advantages.